Compression Testing Machines

What is Compression Testing?

Compression testing is a fundamental mechanical evaluation that, alongside tensile and flexion tests, plays a crucial role in understanding material behavior under increasing crushing loads. Conducted using compression testing machines or universal testing machines with specialized fixtures, these tests involve applying compressive pressure to specimens, often in cuboid or cylindrical geometries. The resulting data provides essential insights into a material's safety, durability, and integrity, revealing properties such as the elastic limit, proportional limit, yield point, yield strength, and, in specific materials, compressive strength.

These tests find widespread applications across various industries, including plastic tubes, pipes, foam materials, paper, cardboard, compression springs, medical implants, packaging, and composite materials. By characterizing a material's response to compressive loading, compression tests contribute to a comprehensive understanding of its mechanical properties. The test data, presented in stress-strain diagrams, showcases key parameters like the elastic limit, proportionality limit, and yield point. Essentially the opposite of tensile tests that pull specimens apart, compression tests offer versatility, allowing examinations on machined material specimens or full-size and scale models of actual components. Common types of compression tests include the top-load (crush) test, flexure (bend) test, and spring test, collectively providing valuable information for design, quality control, and material selection across diverse industrial sectors.

 

What Is Compression Test Machines

Compression test machines, or universal testing machines (UTMs), evaluate static compressive strength characteristics of various materials, products, and components. Measure parameters like compression strength, yield strength, deflection, and modulus, each compression tester is customized by our engineers to align with specific test requirements. The modular design of our machines offers versatility, allowing for additional applications, such as tensile, cyclic, shear, flexure, bend, peel, and tear through appropriate fixtures.

Compression test machines, equipped with components like load cells, crossheads, compression test tools, electronics, and a drive system, utilize advanced testing software aligned with industry standards such as ASTM and ISO. Material considerations and adherence to standards are crucial in equipment selection. By measuring force until a specified load or distance is reached, these machines offer essential insights into a material's strength and deformation behavior, predicting real-world performance, making these machines indispensable for comprehensive material testing and analysis.

*Choose a universal test machine if you need more flexibility or a compression only test machine if you will only be performing compression tests for the foreseeable future.

compression testing machine
Compression Testing Machine Up to 5000kN

Choose our available compression testing machines with load
capacities of 2000kN, 3000kN, 5000kn. Series includes Fully-Automatic Computerized, Automatic, Digimatic, and Analogue.
universal testing machine
Universal Testing Systems up to 2000 kN 

Choose our available tensile machines with load capacities
of 10kN, 20kN, 50kN, 100kN, 200kN, 300kN, 600kN, 1000kN, 1200kN, 1500kN, and 2000kN.

Why Perform Compression Test?

Compression testing stands as an indispensable cornerstone in evaluating materials, components, and end products throughout various manufacturing stages. Its primary function revolves around assessing the capacity of materials to endure the specific mechanical forces anticipated within their intended applications. Whether it's examining the resilience of car windshields, the durability of construction concrete beams, or the comfort factor of foam used in seating arrangements, a material's suitability heavily depends on its capacity to endure diverse mechanical forces, usage cycles, durations, and environmental conditions.

Materials often exhibit an inverse relationship between tensile and compressive strength, emphasizing the criticality of compression testing, especially for brittle substances like metals, plastics, ceramics, composites, and cardboard utilized in load-bearing scenarios. Unlike tests focusing on material properties, compression tests directly evaluate finished products like tennis balls, water bottles, or furniture, offering crucial insights into their compressive strength. For instance, engineers seeking to optimize materials while maintaining product strength rely on compression tests to strike a delicate balance—ensuring items like thinner-walled water bottles remain resilient during transport and stacking on pallets.

Moreover, compression testing transcends the realms of research and development, playing a pivotal role in quality assurance protocols. Ensuring that batches of finished products meet prescribed compressive specifications is not merely a safety consideration but also integral for business credibility. Defective products pose risks to users and can lead to substantial setbacks for manufacturers, including delays, revenue losses, and reputational damage. In essence, the meticulous conduct of compression tests underpins the integrity, safety, and efficiency of materials and products, providing crucial insights into their response to compressive forces. This data aids in material selection, optimizing product designs, and ensuring quality control, contributing significantly to safety, cost-efficiency, and overall performance across diverse industries.


compression testing
compression testing

How to Perform Compression Test with Universal Testing Machine?

Universal Testing Machine Configured for Compression Testing
 

Compression tests are performed on universal testing machines, also known as compression testing machines. Universal testing machines are the most flexible and versatile systems designed for evaluating the characteristics of various materials and components that can perform more than just compression tests. Universal Testing Machine can easily perform other test applications such as tensile, cyclic, shear, flexure, bend, peel, and tear by simply adding appropriate fixtures. These machines, available in single or dual-column frames with Load Cells, Testing Software, and specialized Platens, cater to a broad force capacity spectrum, from as low as 0.02 N to as high as 2,000 kN. NL Scientific's range, spanning from the Tabletop Servo Control Series for lower force tests to the NL Scientific’s Industrial Servo Control Hydraulic Series for higher force applications, offers adaptability through different fixtures to comprehensively analyze products, components, or materials.

universal testing machine components and parts


Tensile Testing Machine

 



1. Twin Column Frame

The twin-column frame is the structural component of the UTM that provides support for the various testing components. It typically consists of two vertical columns that support the crosshead, where the load is applied to the specimen.

 


2. Magnetic Control Unit:

The Magnetic Control Unit is responsible for controlling and adjusting the speed and movement of the crosshead.  It is a magnetic particle brake system that provides precise control over the loading and unloading phases during a test.

 


3. Load Cell

The load cell is a crucial component that measures the force or load applied to the specimen during a test. It converts the mechanical force into an electrical signal that can be interpreted and recorded by the testing machine.

 


4. Auxiliary Unit

The auxiliary unit refers to additional components that enhance the capabilities of the UTM. This includes accessories like grips, fixtures, or heating/cooling systems that are specifically designed for different types of tests or materials.

 


5. Emergency Stop

The emergency stop is a safety feature that allows the immediate cessation of the testing procedure in case of any unexpected or dangerous situations. It is crucial for preventing damage to the testing machine, and specimens, or ensuring the safety of operators.

 

 

6. Software

The software is the interface that controls the UTM, allowing users to set up, monitor, and analyze tests. It provides a user-friendly platform to input test parameters, start and stop tests, and collect data.

 

How to Perform Compression Test with Compression Testing Machine?

Compression Testing Machine - Compression Only Machines
 

Compression Testing Machines, also known as Compression Only Machine, are use to perform compression used to test the compressive strength of materials. Compressive strength is a measure of the ability of a material, such as concrete, to withstand compressive loads without breaking or failing. The testing machine typically consists of a hydraulic pump that applies a compressive force to a cylindrical concrete specimen. The force is applied at a constant rate until the specimen fails or reaches a predetermined maximum load. These machines, available in force capacities ranging from 2000 kN to 5000 kN with multiple series including, Analogue, Automatic, to Computerized Series. 

Purpose of a Concrete Compression Machine


The Compression Testing Machine (CTM) is a crucial tool for evaluating material quality through compression resistance analysis. It operates by applying a standard static force and displacement rate to measure the compressive strength of various materials. With diverse models tailored for specific testing needs, ranging from gas cylinders to units excluding torsional forces, selecting the right CTM depends on the material and desired test outcomes, including non-destructive evaluation capabilities.

In engineering and materials testing, the CTM plays a pivotal role in examining mechanical properties and load-bearing capacities of materials like concrete and sheet metal. Its primary goal is to determine the maximum stress a material can withstand before failure or deformation, a critical metric for assessing strength and suitability. As a linchpin in quality control, CTMs ensure materials meet design specifications, enhancing safety and reliability in various applications.

compression testing machine

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Selecting a Compression Test Machine

Choose a universal test machine for the most flexibility which can easilty perform other test applications such as tensile, cyclic, shear, flexure, bend, peel, and tear by simply adding appropriate fixtures. Choose a compression only test machine if you will be performing compression tests application only or a higher compressive load compared to universal testing machines.

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All Compression Only Machines Series

AUTOMATIC COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE

automatic compression testing machine
An automatic concrete compression machine test the compressive strength of concrete specimens with automated functions for applying pressure, recording data, and analyzing results without requiring manual intervention.
Compliance Standards: EN 12390-3, ASTM C39, AASHTO T22
 

COMPUTERIZED COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE (FULLY AUTOMATIC)

computerized compression testing machine fully automatic
Computerized compression testing machine integrates computer technology, it automates the application of pressure, data collection, and analysis, and allowing for extensive data storage and analysis capabilities.
Compliance Standards: EN 12390-3, ASTM C39, AASHTO T22
 

COMPUTERIZED FULLY AUTOMATIC WELDED FRAME COMPRESSION MACHINE

computerized fully automatic welded frame compression machine
Computerized fully automatic welded frame compression machine integrates computer technology enable automated assessment of the compressive strength of various materials and durability due to its welded frame construction.
Compliance Standards: EN 12390-4, ASTM C39, AASHTO T22, UNI
 

ANALOGUE COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE

analogue compression testing machine
An analogue concrete compression machine use analog gauges or dials to display the force applied during the test rather than digital displays.
Compliance Standards: EN 12390-3 | ASTM C39 | AASHTO T22
 

DIGIMATIC COMPRESSION MACHINE

digimatic compression testing machine
Digimatic compression machine employs digital technology to enhance accuracy, enable precise measurement, real-time data recording, and clear display of applied force
Compliance Standards: EN 12390-3/772-1/12390-5/12390-6 ASTM C39/C293, AASHTO T 22
 

Type of Compression-Only Machine Series

  • Analogue Compression Testing Machine:
    • Technology: Analog machines use traditional analog gauges or meters to display test measurements such as force or displacement.
    • Readout: Results are read directly from the analog gauges, which may involve manual interpretation.
    • Controls: Manual control knobs or levers are typically used to adjust testing parameters.
    • Data Recording: Analog machines may require manual recording of test data.

  • Digital Compression Testing Machine:
    • Technology: Digital machines use digital sensors and displays to measure and present test data.
    • Readout: Results are displayed digitally, providing easier and more precise readings compared to analog displays.
    • Controls: Digital controls, often with keypads or touchscreens, offer more precise and user-friendly adjustment of testing parameters.
    • Data Recording: Some digital machines may have built-in data recording capabilities for later analysis.

  • Automatic Compression Testing Machine:
    • Automation: Automatic machines are designed to perform tests with a higher degree of automation, reducing the need for manual intervention.
    • Testing Procedures: These machines can automatically apply the load, control the testing process, and even stop the test when specific conditions are met.
    • Data Logging: Automatic machines typically have integrated data logging capabilities, recording key parameters during the test automatically.

  • Automatic Compression Testing Machine, Computerized:
    • Computer Integration: This type of machine combines automation with computerized controls, allowing for more advanced and sophisticated testing procedures.
    • Software Control: Computerized systems often come with dedicated software that allows for precise control, real-time monitoring, and extensive data analysis.
    • Data Visualization: Results are often graphically displayed on a computer screen, offering a more detailed and comprehensive view of the material's behavior.
    • Data Storage: Computerized systems usually have advanced data storage capabilities, enabling users to store, retrieve, and analyze large sets of test data.

2000 kN Compression-Only Machine Specification

Model Number

NL 4000 X / 009N

NL 4000 X / 032G

NL 4000 X / 016U

NL 4000 X / 034N

Model Type

Analogue - Eco Smartz 

Digimatic

Automatic

Fully-Automatic, Computerized

Max. Vertical Clearance 

415 mm

400 mm

425 mm

382 mm

Max. Horizontal Clearance

270 mm

285 mm

270 mm

270 mm

Capacity

2000 kN

Compression Platen Diameter

295 mm

216 mm

295 mm

295 mm

Piston Ram Diameter 

250 mm

250 mm 

250 mm 

250 mm

Piston Ram Travel

50 mm

50 mm

50 mm

60 mm

Column Diameter

Ø66.5 mm

Ø65 mm

Ø70 mm

Ø70 mm

Accuracy

Class 2

Class 1

Class 1

Class 1

Product Dimension (mm)

965 (L) x 610 (W) x 1300 (H)

1010 (L) x 430 (W) x 1480 (H)

970 (L) x 610 (W) x 1300 (H)

1450 (L) x 620 (W) x 1600 (H)

Approx. Product Weight

782.5 kg

625 kg

783 kg

900 kg

Power

220 V, 2.5 Amp, 50 / 60 Hz, 1 Ph

AC220 V, 1Ph, 6A, 50/60 Hz,

220~240 V, 750 W, 1 Ph, 50 / 60 Hz

220~240V, 50/60 Hz, 6A, 1Ph, 750 W 

3000, 5000 kN Compression-Only Machine Specification

Model Number

NL 4000 X / 018U

NL 4000 X / 035N

NL 4000 X / 020

NL 4000 X / 025

Model Type

Automatic

Fully-Automatic, Computerized

Fully-Automatic, Computerized, Welded Frame

Fully-Automatic, Computerized, Welded Frame

Max. Vertical Clearance 

370 mm

373 mm

350 mm

435 mm

Max. Horizontal Clearance

320 mm

270 mm

290 mm

580 mm

Capacity

3000 kN

Compression Platen Diameter

295 mm

295 mm

300 mm

300 mm

Piston Ram Diameter 

290 mm

250 mm 

300 mm

440 mm 

Piston Ram Travel

50 mm

60 mm

50 mm

50 mm

Accuracy

Class 1

Class 1

Class 1

Class 1

Column Diameter

Ø73 mm

Ø77.5 mm

Ø80 mm


Frame: 750 (L) x 660 (W) x 1500 (H)

Console: 620 (L) x 500 (W) x 1300 (H)
1300 (H)

Product Dimension (mm)

1020 (L) x 650 (W) x 1300 (H)

1450 (L) x 620 (W) x 1600 (H)

960 (L) x 500 (W) x 1200 (H)

Approx. Product Weight

905 kg

1000 kg

625 kg

2800 kg

Power

240 V, 750 W, 5 Amp, 50 / 60 Hz, 1 Ph

220~240V, 50/60Hz, 1Ph, 6 Amps.

AC220 V, 1Ph, 6A, 50/60 Hz,

220 V, 2.5 Amp, 50 / 60 Hz, 1 Ph


 

All Compression Testing Machines Series

3KN UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

SERVOTEC FULLY AUTOMATIC
 
universal-testing-machine-3kn
The 3kN Universal Testing Machine (Servotec Fully Automatic) have precise test force accuracy of ±0.8%, a versatile test speed range from 0.01 to 500 mm/min, and a broad measuring range spanning from 0.5% to 100% of full scale.

10KN UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

SERVOTEC FULLY AUTOMATIC
 
universal-testing-machine-10kn
The 10kN Universal Testing Machine (Servotec Fully Automatic) have precise test force accuracy of ±0.5%, a versatile test speed range from 0.01 to 500 mm/min, and a broad measuring range spanning from 0.5% to 100% of full scale.

50KN UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

SERVOTEC FULLY AUTOMATIC
 
universal-testing-machine-50kn
The 50kN Universal Testing Machine (Servotec Fully Automatic) have precise test force accuracy of ±0.5%, a versatile test speed range from 0.01 to 500 mm/min, and a broad measuring range spanning from 0.5% to 100% of full scale.

100KN UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

SERVOTEC FULLY AUTOMATIC
 
universal-testing-machine-200kn
The 100kN Universal Testing Machine (Servotec Fully Automatic) have precise test force accuracy of ±0.8%, a versatile test speed range from 0.01 to 500 mm/min, and a broad measuring range spanning from 0.5% to 100% of full scale.

200KN UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

SERVOTEC FULLY AUTOMATIC
 
universal-testing-machine-20kn
The 200kN Universal Testing Machine (Servotec Fully Automatic) have precise test force accuracy of ±0.5%, a versatile test speed range from 0.01 to 500 mm/min, and a broad measuring range spanning from 0.5% to 100% of full scale.

300KN-2000KN UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL
 
universal-testing-machine-20kn
Electro-Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine with a capacity range of 300kN - 2000kN. This type of testing machine has a combination of electrical and hydraulic systems to apply controlled forces to a specimen for the measurement of parameters.

Compression Testing Fixtures For Universal Testing Machine

The fixtures and grips used in a universal testing machine serve the purpose of securely holding and positioning the specimen during testing, ensuring accurate and repeatable results. The primary objectives of universal testing machine fixtures and grips include, tensile, cyclic, shear, flexure, bend, peel, and tear.

Fixed Platen

compression platens

Self Aligning Platens

universal-testing-machine-3kn

High-Temperature Platen

universal-testing-machine-20kn

Specification for Universal Testing Machine

Model Number

TT6000 X / 032N

TT6000 X /   020N

TT6000 X / 019N

TT6000 X / 018N

TT6000 X / 024N

TT6000 X / 023N

Max Test Force

10kN

20kN

50kN

100kN

200kN

300kN

 

1000kgf

2000kgf

5000kgf

10000kgf

20000kgf

30000kgf

Structure Type

Twin Rigid Column with Twin High Precision Ball Screw

Trailing Space

950 mm (exclude fixtures)

Width Space

350 mm

350 mm

400 mm

440 mm

440 mm

440 mm

Test Force Accuracy

±0.5%

±0.5%

±0.5%

±0.5%

±0.5%

±0.5%

Test Speed Range

0.01 - 500 mm/min

0.01 - 500 mm/min

0.01 - 500 mm/min

0.1 - 250 mm/min

0.1 - 250 mm/min

0.1 - 500 mm/min

Load Resolution

1/100 000

1/100 000

1/100 000

1/100 000

1/100 000

1/100 000

Displacement Resolution

1/1000

1/1000

1/1000

1/1000

1/1000

1/1000

Displacement Accuracy

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

Resolution of Metal Extenders

1/1000

1/1000

1/1000

1/1000

1/1000

1/1000

Accuracy of Metal Extenders

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

Accuracy of Extenders

±1 mm

±1 mm

±1 mm

±1 mm

±1 mm

±1 mm

Measuring Range

0.5% - 100% Full Scale

Load Unit

Gf, kgf, N, kN, Lbf, etc.

Curve Display

Selectable Axial Parameters:

 Y-axis - time, load, displacement, deformation, stress, strain.

 X-axis - time, load, displacement, deformation, stress, strain.

Data Display

Max. Force, Speed, Specimen Detail, Strength (Kpa, Mpa, N/mm, Nmm)

Main Drive Unit

Precision Servo Drive & Servo Motor

Safety Feature

Emergency Stop, Overload Protection, Upper & Lower Limit Switch Load Sensor with Auto Retreat

Power Source

220 ~ 240V, 600W, 4A, 1Ph, 50/60Hz, 0.8Hp

220 ~ 240V, 1500W, 5A, 1Ph, 50/60 Hz, 2Hp

380 ~ 415V, 1500W, 5A, 1Ph, 50/60 Hz, 2Hp

Product Dimension

660(L) x 450(W) x 1700(H) mm

606 x 405 x 1625 mm

490 x 795 x 1750 mm

910 x 480 x 2000 mm

910 x 480 x 2000 mm

910 x 480 x 2000 mm

Approx. Weight

186 kg

220 kg

250 kg

500 kg

500 kg

500 kg

Compression Testing Standards

Standards for Testing Plastics, Elastomers, and Metals
 

Standards set by renowned organizations like ASTM and ISO serve as the cornerstone of compression testing across industries. These meticulous guidelines establish parameters and expected outcomes for various raw materials, from metals and concrete crucial for infrastructure projects to refined products like medical devices and electronics. By adhering to these standards, materials and end-products within the supply chain are ensured to possess consistent mechanical properties, mitigating the risk of failure in their intended applications. 

For instance, ASTM D3574, observed by industries such as furniture, automotive, and mattress manufacturing, focuses on assessing the indentation force deflection of polyurethane foam. This test precisely measures the foam's initial softness when compressed to 25% of its original thickness, followed by gauging its supportiveness at 65% compression. Automotive seating engineers rely on this data to specify the desired indentation force deflection for their products. Manufacturing locations rigorously conduct these tests throughout production, ensuring uniform softness and supportiveness in every seat manufactured. Given the significant implications of product failure on cost and safety, companies are strongly advised to invest in high-caliber, precise testing equipment. This investment allows them to seamlessly verify whether their products align with the applicable standards, reinforcing reliability and meeting quality benchmarks.

ASTM Standards:


ASTM C109: 
Specifically for testing 2-inch concrete cubes to assess compression.


ASTM C170:
Evaluates the compression strength of dimension stone materials.

ASTM C365:
Tailored for compression testing of sandwich core materials.

ASTM C39: Focuses on compression testing of concrete cylinders.

ASTM D1621:
Assesses the compressive properties of rigid cellular plastics.

ASTM D2844:
Measures moisture exudation in compacted soils.

ASTM D3410:
Determines the compressive strength of polymer matrix composites.

ASTM D575-91:
Standard test method for assessing rubber properties under compression.

ASTM D6484:
Evaluate the open hole compressive strength of polymer matrix composite laminates.

ASTM D6641:
Assessing compressive properties of polymer matrix composites using a combined loading compression (CLC) test fixture.

ASTM D695:
Evaluates compression testing for rigid plastics.

ASTM D7137:
Specifically measures compressive residual strength properties of damaged polymer matrix composite plates.

ASTM F1306:
Measures the slow rate penetration resistance of flexible barrier films and laminates.

ASTM D3574:
Standard test methods for flexible cellular materials.

ISO Standards:


ISO 11608:
Concerns needle-based injection systems.

ISO 604: Assesses the compressive properties of plastics.

ISO 7886: Tests sterile hypodermic syringes.

ISO 844: Focuses on compression properties of rigid cellular plastics.

Other Standards:


AASHTO T 190: Measures resistance R value and expansion pressure of compacted soils.

BSS 7260: Assesses post-impact compressive strength of composite laminates.

Caltrans Test Method (CTM) 301: Conducts moisture exudation tests for compacted soils.

Order A Compression Testing Machine

Each test can help business to better understand the performance and quality of materials, components, or products. This is an essential aspect of product design and development. With the results of a tensile, compression or flexural test, can better adapt, optimize or redesign a products.

With the advance features and capabalities, these machines are perfect for businesses of all size that need high-quality testing equipment for material and engineering tests.

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